A car is composed of many parts and components. Each part plays a different role. It also needs to be processed through different processing techniques before it can be installed on the car for use. What are the parts processing technology?

automotive parts processing

1. Forging and processing of auto parts

In the automobile manufacturing process, forging is widely used. Forging methods are divided into free forging and model forging. Free forging is a processing method in which a metal blank is placed on an anvil and subjected to impact or pressure (known as “ironing”). The blanks of automobile gears and shafts are processed by free forging.

2. Auto parts casting processing

Casting is a production method in which molten metal is poured into the cavity of a mold and cooled and solidified to obtain a product. In the process of automobile parts processing and manufacturing, there are many parts made of cast iron blanks, which account for about 10% of the total vehicle weight, such as cylinder block, transmission case, steering gear housing, rear axle housing, brake drum, various bracket etc.

Sand molds are usually used to manufacture iron castings. The raw material of the sand mold is mainly sand, mixed with binder and water. The sand material must have a certain adhesive strength so that it can be molded into the required shape and can withstand the erosion of hot molten iron without collapse. In order to mold a cavity in the sand mold that matches the shape of the casting, wood must be used to make a model, called a wooden mold. The volume of the hot molten iron will shrink after cooling. Therefore, the size of the wooden mold needs to be increased according to the shrinkage rate on the basis of the original size of the casting, and the surface that needs to be cut is thickened accordingly.

3. Welding processing of auto parts

Welding is a processing method in which two pieces of metal are locally heated or heated and pressurized simultaneously. We often use the welding method in which workers hold the mask in one hand and the welding tongs and the welding rod connected to the wire in the other hand is called manual arc welding, which uses the high temperature generated by arc discharge to melt the welding rod and the element to join them.

Manual arc welding is not widely used in automobile manufacturing. Spot welding is widely used in automobile body manufacturing. Spot welding is suitable for welding thin steel plates. During operation, two electrodes apply pressure to the two steel plates to bond them together, and at the same time, the bonding point (circular with a diameter of 5-6 kelvin) is heated and melted to be firmly bonded. When two body parts are welded, the edges are welded at a point every 50-100 to make the two parts form a discontinuous multi-point connection. To weld the entire car body, usually thousands of welding points are required. The strength requirements of the solder joints are very high. Each solder joint can withstand a tensile force of 5kN, even if the steel plate is torn, the solder joints cannot be separated.

4. Cold stamping processing of auto parts

Cold stamping or sheet metal stamping is a processing method in which sheet metal is cut off or formed under pressure in a die. Daily necessities, such as aluminum pots, lunch boxes, washbasins, etc., are made by cold stamping processing methods. For example, to make a lunch box, you first need to cut out a rectangular blank with 4 rounded corners (called “blanking” in the industry), and then use a punch to press the blank into a concave mold to form (called “drawing” in the industry) ). In the deep drawing process, the flat sheet material becomes a box shape, and its four sides are vertically bent upward, and the material at the four corners is piled up and wrinkles can be seen.

5. Cutting and processing of auto parts

The cutting of automobile parts is to cut the metal blank layer by layer with a tool; the processing method to obtain the required shape, size and surface roughness of the workpiece. Metal cutting processing includes two methods: fitter and mechanical processing. Fitter is a processing method used by workers to cut with hand tools. The operation is flexible and convenient, and it is widely used in assembly and repair. Machining is done by means of machine tools, including: turning, planing, milling, drilling and grinding methods.

6. Heat treatment of auto parts

Heat treatment is a method of reheating, heat preservation or cooling of solid steel to change its structure to meet the requirements of the use of parts or process requirements. The level of heating temperature, the length of holding time, and the speed of cooling can cause different structural changes in steel. The blacksmith immerses the heated steel parts in water for rapid cooling, which can increase the hardness of the steel parts.